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I have Tor Browser installed with virtually default settings, nothing advanced tweaked at all like proxy, security or network settings.

I just tried to access 192.168.0.1 from within my computer's Tor Browser and noticed it wouldn't work:

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I can access Google, at http://74.125.224.72, but not my own LAN router's http://192.168.0.1.

Why is this? Would other typically local IP reservations like 10.1.1.1 similarly not work?

I am also thinking of exclusively using Tor Browser for everything I do web-wise (and/or using Whonix), so am wondering how this would be practical when committed to Tor.

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Open the options menu of the browser, then click on advanced and then network, you will find the connection settings. If you open those settings you get the choice to not use a proxy for 192.168.0.1 (default is 127.0.0.1 only)

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Why is this? Would other typically local IP reservations like 10.1.1.1 similarly not work?

That's correct. It doesn't work because it is a private address.

When you connect through Tor, you are effectively outside of your own network. So you can't connect to your router for the same reason that I can't connect to your router.

Besides that, Tor just flat out refuses to connect to private addresses. You should see these in your log:

Jan 05 18:46:11.000 [warn] Rejecting SOCKS request for anonymous connection to private address [scrubbed].

As suggested by @user3423647, you can tell your browser to not use Tor for certain addresses or ranges, for example:

localhost, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.0.0/24

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