This setup may, or may not, be completely anonymous, depending on a whole bunch of factors, some extremely subtle. Adding a VPN to Tor basically never improves anonymity, though. Exactly how someone would trace you back to your real IP is in many cases more about how you use Tor, than Tor itself.


The tor-spec.txt you linked to is a more-or-less up-to-date description of how Tor works. There may be minor divergences between that document and the running code (which makes the codebase the definitive specification), but for almost any purposes you'll be wanting it for, it is sufficient. In particular, it describes the use of Ed25519 and Curve25519 in ...


Your understanding is basically correct. The first create cell is indeed encrypted with 1 layer, the second 2 layers, the third 3 layers, etc. However, Tor takes a different approach when encrypting the second create cell. The second create cell is first encrypted with the public key of Relay 2, and next encrypted with the session key of Relay 1. It looks ...

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