There are four methods of finding an Onion service's IP address:
Controlling all the relays in a circuit between the onion service and an introduction or a rendezvous point.
Through information leaks.
Hacking the server.
Analyzing the traffic of the suspected server while sending a request or performing a Denial of Service attack.
The first method, ...
The VPN will add little to nothing and possible even harm your anonymity. There is an entire wiki written on this.
You will hear this over and over from the Tor team:
Generally speaking, we don't recommend using a VPN with Tor unless
you're an advanced user who knows how to configure both in a way that
doesn't compromise your privacy.
This new feature is called, "Letterboxing"
Tor Browser, in its default mode, is starting with a content window
rounded to a multiple of 200px x 100px to prevent fingerprinting the
screen dimensions. The strategy here is to put all users in a couple
of buckets to make it harder to single them out. That worked until
users started to resize their ...
If the configuration and operation of an onion service is done "properly", then it is extremely difficult, and requires very significant resources, to determine that onion site's IP address and network/physical location. The configuration of the web server is only one small part of the picture of ensuring the anonymity of an onion service, and providing ...