Doesn't the first server see who I am?
Possibly. A bad first of three servers can see encrypted Tor traffic coming from your computer.
It still doesn't know who you are and what you are doing over Tor. It
merely sees "This IP address is using Tor". Tor is not illegal
anywhere in the world, so using Tor by itself is fine. You are still
protected from this node figuring out who you are and where you are
going on the Internet
In the light of the last events:
Exclusive: Secret contract tied NSA and security industry pioneer
SAN FRANCISCO Fri Dec 20, 2013 5:07pm EST
Backdoored Dual_EC_DRBG. crypto.stackexchange.com: Explaining weakness of Dual EC DRBG to wider audience?
However, this backdoor was detected in November 15, 2007
Bruce Schneier's blog: The Strange Story of Dual_EC_DRBG
Imagine, that NSA pay to Tor's dev team
10,000,000$ + 1$ to inject kind of backdoor into their asymmetric crypto.
Thereafter, they have no needs to stay as a Tor-node, even. Simply, record every connection through internet on every IX - An Internet exchange point. Pub-keys they can get from any Tor-Dir, and every names and IPs of Tor-nodes too.
Your onion, thrice encrypted traffic, has not yet reached a
first server, it will be cracked on the
IX, your connection in that case is a plain-text connection. NSA could see your surfing as
Your <-> Server. Tor doesn't matter.
However, FAQ of Tor say the same that RSA team, Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman told us about their crypto, before.