While there are some great suggestions in the other answers in this thread, we should be careful to answer the question actually being asked.
OP asked for anonymous email. Many of these answers assume he wants encrypted email as well, which may or may not be the case.
As others have said, we need a better idea of the specifics of the poster's use case. From whom do you need to remain anonymous? Just the recipient of the email, the ISP who delivers it, the US government, law enforcement, your boss, or your spouse? Does the content have to be secret as well, our just your sending identity?
Knowing these details will get you better answers.
Let's make some assumptions, and try to get you an answer "your mom would understand." Note that if any if these assumptions are wrong, the advice will be too.
Assume you learned something bad about your work and want to be a whistle blower to the Labor Board, but can't afford having your boss find out, and would rather the labor board not know who you are. You just want to email them the dirt. In this case you don't care if the information in the email is secret, you just want to hide your identity.
In this case, you don't care so much about the government, or law enforcement. You might care about a private investigator after the fact.
One way you could go about this is to go to a library or coffee shop you've never been to before. Use a computer you have never used before. Create a brand new email account with the provider of your choice, but don't provide any real information for your name or contact info. Use that to send your email.
Of course it's up to you to not disclose details about yourself in the message you send. But aside from that, it would take significant government level spy effort to identify you as the sender.
What the recipient could learn easily would be: the address of the coffee house or library you used, and the time you sent the message. But if you don't go back there, and didn't buy anything with a credit card while there, it's extremely unlikely any average adversary could id you from that.
And while you could use the account again to get a response, never access it from your home internet or home computer.
But that's just one scenario, and the details of your specific threat model matter in providing a solid, workable answer.
Maybe you need mixmaster, Tor, a VPN, and pgp. We just don't know.