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If I use a firewall (IPcop) to allow only HTTPS (443) traffic from the LAN/Tails box/Green NIC, and block all other protocols/traffic, is all traffic from the Exit Node guaranteed to be encrypted?

Are all web requests in which the URL begins with https://, and with only HTTPS (443) traffic allowed by the F/W, guaranteed to be encrypted from the Exit Node?

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No. You can still exit to any port.

What that does is limit the Guard nodes you can use. In this case, you can only build circuits using a Guard node whose OR port is 443. Those circuits can still exit anywhere.

And yes. All https connections are encrypted all the way between your browser and the final destination web server.

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This is usually not the case. I assume you are inside your local network and have set up IPcop to only allow traffic to port 443. Tor now builds a circuit and for the first link of this circuit a Tor relay is used which offers its services on port 443. Later Tor establishes the whole circuit. When you send traffic through Tor is inside a tunnel and your IPcop firewall has no influence anymore. This means you could send any traffic (encrypted as well as unencrypted) through Tor.

You could maybe tell your browser to drop all unencrypted traffic or (better) configure Privoxy in a way that it only accepts and forward requests to port 443.

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