When using Orbot and not coupled with Tor browser, but rather through Google Chrome or Firefox, can a website I visit de-anonymize me? Particularly know anything about my location, IP, service provider?
If so, how can I get tails level security/privacy on my phone?
Yes, google chrome and regular Firefox have unique fingerprints that can help to identify you. I personally think you're better off using something like NetGuard and just blocking all wifi access except tor and a few other essentials.
Yes, if something/anything is leaking any kind of your data. The OrBot - or TransProxy in Linux/Unix - it's just a route diversion layer that works only if there's nothing else is leaking your data. In a simple example: a tool like wget or fetch or curl-cli will not leak anything by itself, but anything else that is running(and there's a lot of stuff on Android for OrBot - including a proprietary/closed-source OS kernel itself) that can avoid it