What identification information does Tor strip besides IP addresses? I realize that, by filtering through ORs, my IP address is no longer identifiable. But what other ID information, besides the data itself (eg an email in which I write my address), can be found if not for Tor?
Tor strips (or really just discards) all network level information up to (and excluding) the application Application Layer.
Anything sent on the application layer is transmitted as-is and Tor takes no steps to modify or alter the Application Layer data in any way, including any identifying information.