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How does anonymity of tor work? For example, government want to find somebody who uses tor. We will call him X. He visited site Z. He used tor. Government asks ip of exit node from Z and gets it. Traffic from exit node to Z is unencrypted. Exit node connects with second node with key. Is it unique (own) key for every second node or all second nodes which are connected with exit node have one and same key? If key is unique, can government see what second node made ask to exit node to Z and that way know what first (entry) node made ask to second. And that way find ip of X. How will government know which second nodes were connected with exit node? It will ask it from provider. Is it real to find X that way or not? I don't understand all aspects of Tor's work. Hope, asked a question clearly. Thanks.

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Traffic from exit node to Z is unencrypted.

In that case, Z is an http site and not using https (that's getting more rare nowadays since https certificates are now free). I don't see how that's related.

Exit node connects with second node with key. Is it unique (own) key for every second node or all second nodes which are connected with exit node have one and same key?

I assume you mean the middle node. Yes it is unique and generated when the current circuit is created.

If key is unique, can government see what second node made ask to exit node to Z and that way know what first (entry) node made ask to second.

No, this should be impossible.

How will government know which second nodes were connected with exit node?

They can't/shouldn't be able to know that.

It will ask it from provider. Is it real to find X that way or not? I don't understand all aspects of Tor's work. Hope, asked a question clearly.

The provider can say. "Yes, using packet analysis, we can see that they are using Tor." If you are using a bridge aka pluggable transport, they can't even see that.

What's most important here is to read the Tor design document. Yes, it is long but it nicely fills in all of the questions that you have in detail.

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