What was the previous TBB version doing that I wasn't seeing so many Cloudflare captchas? Something in the UA or tweaked in about:config perhaps? All I know is TBB v6.x.x was able to view sites behind cloudflare. What happened?
What was the previous TBB version doing that I wasn't seeing so many Cloudflare captchas?
Apparently Cloudflare had done some hack on their side to handle Tor Browser better (i.e. trigger fewer false positives), but they haven't updated it for Tor Browser 7.0. We hear they're in the process of updating it. Soon I hope!
The graphical passwords (I assume you mean things like "Select all the cars"-style puzzles) are provided by Cloudflare. They are working on a fix for this problem. It should be ready next week if all goes well. Not sure how long it will take to get it rolled out globally, though.